The importance of the Arabian Gulf and Kuwait in history, international relations, and in international trade in particular stretches back to the old distant ages. The present land of Kuwait was located within the Arabian middle lands of the State of Kendah which emerged during the period from the third to the fifth centuries A.D.
The archeological excavation commenced by the effort of the Danish mission in Failaka Island in 1958 proved that an ancient historical civilization existed in Kuwait. The present land of the State of Kuwait is connected in the west to the Arabian Peninsula which is an inseparable part of it. Also from the sea side, it forms a part of the Arabian Gulf Coast. On that basis, the ancient and middle history are firmly related to the Arabian Peninsula, its residents and the Gulf area.
Historians mentioned that when the Macedonian Alexander (the Great), the Greek conqueror and leader, invaded the east in 326 BC, he discovered a sea way between Al-Sind River and Shatt Alarab through the gulf in 326 BC. He stayed with some of his soldiers in Failaka and discovered in the Island "Ikaros" stone, written upon by the Greeks, along with other many antiquities. It is historical proof that certifies the emergence of an old civilization in Kuwait that was contemporary to the ancient eastern civilizations.
One of the historians stated that the land of Kuwait witnessed a day of the war between Al-Harith bin Amro bin Hajr Al-Kindi and the King of Al-Munathira, Al-Munthir bin Maa Al-Samaa Al-Lakhmi who defeated Al-Hareth at Warbah Island in the pre-Islamic époque.
In addition, the coasts of the Gulf witnessed the first clash in the onset of Islam between the Persians and the Muslims during the period of Caliphate Abu Baker Al-Sideeq in 12 AH., 633 AD, in Kadhima (That Al-Salasil) which was known later as Kuwait.
From the end of the ninth century to the end of 11th century AD., the region of Kuwait was integrated with a great part of Arabian Peninsula within the strong State of Al-Karamitah, which threatened the Abassied Caliphate in Baghdad. After the collapse of that state, which many historians described as "the first socialist state", a group of local and tribal emirates emerged and continued until the end of the 15th Century. The port of Kazdhema on the coast of Kuwait served as the seafaring gate to the east side of Arabian Peninsula during that period.
In the modern ages Banu Khalid became the strongest Arab tribe in this region and were able by the end of the 15th century to occupy larger areas stretching from Basra to Qatar including Kuwait. The Sheikhs of Banu Khalid refused to surrender to Ottoman Turkish power after that. When sheikh, Barrak bin Areiar took over the leadership of Bani Khalid in 1669 AD., he sieged Alhafoof city. It was part of Alhasa, until it collapsed during the surrender of the Ottomen ruler Omar Basha. Therefore, the Ottomen Turkish power over the east coast of the Arabian Gulf ended.
The importance of Kuwait arouse when some highly dignified families, the Al-Sabah and the Eneza tribe among others, began a settlement within the area. The Sabah, Al-Kahlifa, Al-Zaid Al-Jalahma and Al-Mo'awda families, were the first to migrate to Kuwait with a group of bedouins and fishermen. Kuwait was initially called Qurain; the name appeared in European maps from the 18th and the 19th centuries. Later, the name was changed to "Kuwait;" which is a minor of the word Kout. Barrak, the Amir of Banu Khalid, was the first to build Alkout as a storehouse at the end of 1110 AH (1698 AD).
Sabah the First was chosen as the Amir of Kuwait in 1110 - 1130 AH. According to a letter from Sheikh Mubarak to the British living in the Gulf regarding the demarcation of boundaries of Kuwait he stated, "Kuwait is a barren land our Grandfather Sabah lived in it in 1022 AH. 1613 AD."
Many stories state Kuwait’s stability and development in the period 1469 AD, which is the year the people of Qurain sent ships and weapons to Nasser Bin Murshid, the Sultan of Oman, to assist him against the Portuguese resistance aiming to occupy the Gulf area. During this historical period, researchers have found clear references of the stability, advancement, and progress of Kuwait which shows that there was no political disorder or conflict that led to changing or transforming the ruling system. The reference of Sheikh Mubarak to the history of Al-Sabah family in Kuwait since 1022 AH, 1613 AD in his letter has no means to oppose or weaken it. So historically, the first ruler of Al-Sabah family is Sheikh Sabah bin Jaber, also known as Sabah the First who passed away in 1190 AH, (1776 AD).